Monday, May 24, 2010

VOLCANO ERUPTION

According to Volcano Data Base Of My country officially published by government in 1979, Indonesia has more than 120 volcanoes of which about 70 erupted in historical time.Basically there were two well known powerful eruption: First eruption of volcano Tambora in 1815 and eruption of Krakatau in 1883:

VOLCANO KRAKATAU:
Volcano Krakatau erupted in 1883.It caused a Tsunami (Tidar Wave) 120 feet in high and generated waves that smashed dock and booth in Japnag and Australia, rolled by Cape Horn at 400 miles per hour and, the day following the disaster, caused ships in the English Channel to yank at their anchor chains. However...this eruption was recorded as a moderate explosion by Shoutheast Asian standards.

Less than a year after eruption a botanist discovered only a tiny spider, which presumably had been blown to the island from the adjacent mainland.Three years after the explosion there was a Garden of Eden, of sorts, including fifteen species of flowering plants, eleven of ferns, and two of mosses.Airborne, swimming and hitchhiking on pieces of flotsam of ten from great distances, birds, reptiles and insects made a home on this unpromising chunk of rock and ash.

Then...fifty years after the explosion there were few signs of the disturbance, and today parts of the island are covered by a luxuriant forest, create Garden of Eden that make people always wish to come and admire complete nature beauty of this volcanic island, Krakatau.

VOLCANO TAMBORA
More powerful eruption than Krakatu is Tambora, vomiting ten times more geologic rubbish than Krakatau eruption.Volcano Tambora located in Sumbawa Island, Bima Regency" erupted in 5 April 1815.Before eruption, peak of this volcano was around 4000 m alt, then after eruption decreased lower to 2851 m alt.The eruption of this volcano was recorded as THE LARGEST VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN HISTORY.

The dust of Tambora eruption shot into the strato sphere blocked out sun, causing three days of darkness as far away as Madura, 300 miles to the west.The dust changed the climate around the world, caused frosts in July and August in New England, and made 1816 "The Year Without A Summer" in Europe.Eruption of volcano Tambora recorded killed more than 90.000 people on Sumbawa and the neighboring island, such us destructive event recorded as largest historical eruption, creating large Crater in diameter 7 km with 800 m in depth which is now day can be discovered on Volcano
Tombora's peak zone.

OTHER POWERFULL ERUPTION:
Unhistorical record of more powerful eruption predicted experienced by an ancient volcano called Toba in northern Sumatra. The eruption of Toba predicted at least ten time more powerful than Tambora.The eruption threw more than 450 cubic miles of ash, dust, and rock in to the air 75.000 year ago. Such an explosion would have been sufficient to screen out the sun over a significant age. Volcano Toba has since calmed down, and in its crater nestles Southeast Asia's Largest Lake.

Other today popular eruption experienced by Indonesian most active volcano, called volcano Merapi located in Yogyakarta and Central Java regions. Past explosion (1006) destroyed Hindu Culture of ancient Mataram kingdom, caused king Erlangga migrated, and burred temples surround included Sambi Sari and Borobudur.Eruption 1930 killed 1.300 people, eruption 1940 created sedimentary lava peak, eruption 1961 created main crater directing to west, eruption 1994 vomited "Wedhus Gembel" which killed about 60 people. Eruption 1998 vomited volcanic material separating 60 km to the western side of the volcano, raised up 300 mt from peak. Latest Eruption 2006 buried some buildings in Kaliadem / Bebeng on southern slope, burned forest area on southern slope, and destroyed safety champers "Bunker" for escaping from volcanic hazard, and killed a member of rescue team on southern slope.

Resource:
Resource adapted from various ref, mainly Subject Volcanology "Trekking Courses" and Indonesian Volcano Base Data.

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