Indonesian Volcano

Indonesia is the land of volcanoes.This country is the world's largest volcanic area,possessing approx 130 active volcanoes,and more than 100 fossil volcanoes.Theses volcanoes stretching through volcanic belt began in Sumatra Island then to Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara,Banda to Halmahera and North Sulawesi.Every years, there are always some eruptions with different type of eruption, from Vulcanian to Strambolian type of eruption,and so on.Most eruptions are Central Eruptions.History of eruption of Indonesian volcano also
recorded Linier one.

1.INDONESIA VOLCANO FEATURE AND TYPE

Most volcanoes is Strato with medium power of eruption, other Maar. Past popular eruption recorded by Tambora, then Krakatau,also Merapi, while the largest eruption one was assumed the super volcano Toba. Type of eruption of Indonesian volcano is not static,may change any time from Vulcanian Type to Strambolian one and from Merapi Type to Plinian and so on due to effect of changes of one or some variable factors such us magma chamber dept, gas pressure level and lava thickness (Vicionity).

2.INDONESIA EARLY WARNING SYSTEM:


A-type active volcanoes are intensively monitored by the authority, while B to C - type active volcanoes are less monitored.Therefore Indonesian volcano monitoring pos mostly established around A-type active volcanoes to warns citizen and visitors.The early warning system consist on 4 levels.Seeing from perspective of volcanic hazard, hike up summit of active volcano on Level 1 ( Aktif Normal ) is considered safe, while on Level 2 ( Waspada ), climbing up summit is normally should be done under consultation to Indonesian authorized board. On level 3 ( Siaga ), climbing up summit zone  is normally prohibited by local authority for safety reason.

3.INDONESIA VOLCANIC HAZARDS:

Indonesian volcanoes have two kinds of Volcanic Hazard;1) Primary Hazard, and 2) Secondary Hazard. Primary Hazard directly related to magmatic activity of the volcano such us eruption.While Secondary Hazard is not directly related to magmatic activity of the volcanoes such us Banjir Lahar (Lahar Flood),and avalanche which are normally caused by high intensity of rain on summit zone.After intense rainfall, the gas sulphure also may accumulated higher due to evaporation effect, and may result a minor eruption / non magmatic eruption / Phreatic one.

4.INDONESIA VOLCANO TOURISM

 In fact...theses volcanoes offer various attractions such nature beauty,volcanic phenomenons (craters,caldera,summit cones,volcanic lake and so on),hot spring,till unique eruptions for traveler and adventure seekers,so that they are growing as volcano adventure travel area for hikers-trekkers-climbers,special interest tour destination,even massive tourism zone.

The strength of Indonesian volcano attractions for most visitors: almost each Indonesian volcano possesing different characters,even some of them are considered very specific such Banda Api and Gamalama-Maluku,Soputan - North Sulawesi,Kelimutu -East Nusa tenggara,Kelut-Java,and Kerinci-Sumatera.


4.1.ADVENTURE TRAVEL: Today Merapi is considered as ones of the top Indonesia adventure travel destinations for hikers - trekkers due to it's eruption phenomenon that cause some changes and always offers "something new"=new sensational crater - "new challenging"=sundy-loose volcanic passages to world's volcano adventure travelers.Then...volcano Kerinci in Sumatra due to it's highest volcanic summit in Indonesia.Kerinci nature character,more durable volcanic activity, as well as weather that often change in short of time offers new challenge for volcano hikers-trekkers-climbers.While on eastern side of Indonesia is Tambora that offers track cross the large caldera's base where the domes are growing up higher and higher.Other volcanoes attracting volcano adventure travel seekers on our list:Semeru,Raung and Slamet - Java,Soputan - North Sulawesi,Banda Api and Gamala - Maluku, new arrival Marapi and Dempo -Sumatera.


4.2.SPECIAL INTEREST TOUR DESTINATION: Today Indonesia volcano special interest tour destinations also keep growing from time to time:popular ones on this special interest category based are Krakatau,and Rinjani,also new arrival Jaboe,and Lokon.


4.3.MASSIVE VOLCANO TOURISM: While other Indonesians popular volcanoes are mostly touristic volcano areas growing as massive tourism destinations,mostly on Java due to easier accessible by most tourists,included Dieng,Bromo,Ijen,Kelut,Tangkubanprahu,and Batur.


5.LISTED INDONESIA A,B,C-TYPE ACTIVE VOLCANOES:

5.1.SUMATERA DAN SUNDA STRAIT: Jaboe, Peuet Sague, Bur Ni Telong,Bur Ni Geureudong,Gayo Lesten, Seulawah Agam, > Sibayak, Sinabung, Pusuh Bukit, Helatoba Taruntung, Bual Buali, > Sorik Merapi, Talak Mau/Talanmau,Marapi, Tandikat, Talang, > Sumbing, Kerinci, Kumpit, Belerang Betiri,Bukit Daun, Kaba, Dempo, Bukit Lumut Balai, Marga Baju, Sekincau Belirang, Pematang Bata, Hulubelu, Rajabasa,Krakatau.LIST NOTE:Volcanoes on identifications:Kunyit,Suo.

5.2.JAVA: Gede, Salak, Tangkubanparahu, Papandayan, Galunggung, Guntur, Cereme,Slamet, Butak Petarangan, Dieng, Sundoro/Sindoro, Sumbing, Merapi, Merbabu, Kelut, Arjuno Welirang, Semeru, Bromo, Lamongan, Raung, Kawah Ijen, > Pulosari, Karang, Patuha, Wayang Windu, Talaga Bodas, Unggaran, Lawu, Wilis, Iyang Argopuro, > Kiaraberes Gagak, Perbakti, Kawah manuk, Kawah Mojang, Kawah Karaha.

5.3.BALI - NUSA TENGGARA: Batur, Agung, Rinjani, Tambora, Sangian Api Hobal, Anak Ranakah, Inielika, Inierie, Ebulobo, Iya, Kelimutu, Rokatenda/Paluweh, Lewotobi Laki-Laki, Lewotobi Perempuan,  Lereboleng, Iliboleng, Egon, Ililewotolo, Iliwerung, Batu Tara, Sirung, > Ilumuda, Labalekan, Yersey, > Waisano, Poco Leak, Sukaria, Ndetu Napi, Riang Kotang.

5.4.SULAWESI DAN ARCH SANGIR:Colo ( Una - Una ), Ambang, Soputan, lokon, Mahawu, Tongkoko, Ruang, Karangetang ( Api Siau ), Banua Wuhu / Mahangetang, Awu, Submarin 1922,Sangir,
> Karua (?),Sempu, Klabat, > Batu Kolok, Tempang, Tampusu, Lahendong, Sarongsong.LIST NOTE:new arrival Karua in South Sulawesi,active volcano B-Type (?).

5.5.BANDA ARC- NORTH MALUKU:Niewerkerk, Wetar, Wurlali,Serawerna, Laworkara, Legatala, Banda Api, > Emperor of China, Manuk - Dukono, Gamkonora, Gamalama, Kie Besi,ibu,Malupang Warirang, Tokodo.

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